Animal Pre-health Monitoring (APHM)

By: Saloni, Neeta, Vrushali Bhashte, Vrushali Harad and Sonali

Problem Statement

The objective is to develop animal pre-health monitoring system for cattle. Domestic cattle perish due to lack of proper monitoring of health parameters. So the team took up the challenge of designing a device or system for Animal Health Monitoring. The system should be able to warn when the health parameters are outside the safe zone.

 

Prior-art-search

Video of the Innovation journey https://youtu.be/JvXdLAv8msQ

Prior-art-search on the net yielded results of advanced monitoring gadgets used in the Western market for health monitoring of cattle, However, the application is very limited in India. There exists a need to design a robust health monitoring system in the India context.

 

Mind Map

A Mind map exercise is carried out to analyse all parameters directly or indirectly linked with animal health monitoring. A graphic version of the Mind map is presented below.

Field visit

1st Field Visit Location: - Grambharati Gaushala,Amrapur

Date: - 29th May 2017

User’s Name:- Thakur Chandubhai, Lal bhai

 

Conversation

Q:- namstey hum Mumbai se aye hai grambharati me summer school me aye hai. Hum janvaro ki health ke upar kam kar rae hai to hume aap se kuch jankari chaiye

A:- haa... thik hai.

Q:- aap ke pass kitna gai hai

A:-hamare pass 15 gai hai

Q:- aap khane me kya dete ho ?

A:- lila grass, sukha chara, bajra, jwara, oats, rachka,sagardan ye sab dete hai

Q:- dudh kitne time nikaltey ho

A:- 15- 18 Ltr.

Q:- gai ko kabhi konsi bimari hui hai?

A:- milk fever, kharva muhvasa, gadiya

Q:- to aapko kaise malum hota hai ki koi gai bimar hai?

A:- khana chod deti hai, akele baithati hai, dudh kam deti hai.

Q:- doctor kitne time ate hai chekup ke liye?

A:- roj check kartey hai, sanstha ke hi hai doctor to roj chek up hota hai.

Q:- Apke gaio konsi bimari hoti hai?

A:- Kharvamuasa , Milk fever ,Kadiya tav etc

Q:-Apko kaise samaj mai ajj jate ahe ki apki gai bimar hai?

A:-Unke vevhar se..Woh khana pena chod dete hai aur apkele akele rehena lagti hai.

Q:- achha hai... thank you

A:- fir se ana jarur.

2nd Field Visit location: - Pratap – Pura

Date: - 29th May 2017

User’s Name:- Joyitabhai Sandhabhai Chaudhari

 

Conversation

Q:- hum Mumbai se aye h grambharati me summer school me hume aap ke janvar ke bare me thodi jankari chaiye.

A:- haa. pucho.

Q:- aap ko hindi ati hai?

A:- haa samzta hu

Q:- aap ke pass total kitne gai hai ?

A:- 13

Q:- konsi konsi jat ke hai?

A:- HF, jersey, cow.

Q:- aap ke ek din ks mitna dudh deti hai ek gai?

A:- 15-20 Ltr.

Q:- to aap ke dudh ka fat kitna hota hai?

A:- hamara to 4-5 tak rahta hai

Q:- doctor se checkups kitne bar karvate ho ?

A:- 2 mahine me ek bar

3rd Field Visit Location: - Alua

Date: - 29th May 2017

User: - Pandya Pareshkumar Bhogilal(Bakabhai)

Conversation between Student and User

Q:- Apke pass kitne Gai aur Bhais hai?

A: - Total -11 animals

Q:- Apke pass kitne prakar ki Gai aur Bhais hai?

A: - Jersey, Sankar aur Gir hai.

Q:- Apka din bhar ka kitna ltr dudha nikalta hai ?

A:- Total pure din ka 15 se 20ltr dudha nikalta hai.

Q:- App Gay aur Bhaiso ko khane ke liye ky dete hai?

A:- Sukha Chara ,Sagardan,Makaberda aur Rachaka.Hamare khet mai hee sai lete hai Rachaka. Abhi khet me Kapas ke bij boye hai. Hamare khet me kapas, gehu, eranda, bajra, rai, danger (rice)

Q:- bahut achha. To hume bataiye apke pass kitne din baad doctor aate hai check up ke liye?

A:- Jab koi Gai ya Bhais bimar padate hai tabhi bulate hai to adhe ghante bad najadik ke dudh dairy centre se camp se doctor bula late hai.Aur doctor anne ka fees 130 rupayaa lete hai

Q:- Apke Gay yaa bhais ko kabhi konsi bimari huve hai kya?

A:- Haa..,hota hai naa.Garmi ke mausam mai Kharvamuasa hota hai.Jab baccha paida hota hai tab usko Milk fever hota hai,toh doctor ko bula ke lasi (injection) dete hai.

4th Field Visit location: - Manikpur

Date: - 30th May 2017

User’s Name:-Vasantbhai Gopalbhai Chaudhari (M.A.BADAustrialia)

Conversation between Student and User

Student:-Hume apke Gai aur Bhaiso ke jankari chaiye ?

User: - Haa, jarur batayege hamara experience share nhi kiya to dusaro ko kaise pata chalga kyu nhi batayenge . Mere pass lagbagh 120 bade animals hai usmese 115 Gai hai aur 5 bhais aur 20 bachade hai.

Student: - Apke pass kitne prakar ki Gai aur Bhais hai?

User: - Jersey aur HF hai.

Student: - Apke pass kitne prakar ki Gai aur Bhais hai?

User: - Jersey aur HF hai.

Student: - Toh unme kon konsi bimariya hoti hai?

User: - Kadhiya tav (High fever )– Garmi ke mausam me jab temperature badh jata hai toh unke sharir ka temperature bad jata hai aur ise fever aa jata hai.Aur use pregnancy ke doran mother cow ki death bhi ho sakhate hai.

Student: - Apko kaise pata chalta hai ki koi Gai ko bukhar hai ?

User: - Khana nahi khati hai akeli rehati hai aur ek jagah pe shant baithati hai. Aur dusara jo hai o hai kharava muasa .Aur isake vajah se unake muh mai chale pad jate hai Aur yah tab pata chalata hai jab unake pair ki khari mai sujan a jati hai.

Student: -Aur yesi konasi bimari hai jo unake jan ko khatara deti hai?

User: -Typhoid,ye bimari hone se vah khana nahi khati aur usaka gala such jata hai,aue esake vajah se hamare 4-5 gay ki mrutyu ho gayi.

Student: -Apaka per day ka milk production kya hota hai?

User: - 1100 liter per day.

Student: -Agar gay bimar hoti hai to usaka asar milk par hota hai kya?

User: -Ha asar to padata hai.ahar koi gay 50 liter per day deti hai to vah 4-5 liter deti hai milk usake bimari ke vakt aur yah milk hum use nahi karate.

Student: -Jo milk ka fat calculation hota hai to apake milk me kesa hota hai fat calculation?

User: - Cow = 4.7-5 Buffalo = 7.6 Unaka body temperature 99-101 hona chahiye,agar isase jada aur kam ho to use fever hota hai.Manasa taluka aur mehsana jilha mai milk production mai 2 no. Mera hi hai.

Student: - Aap unhe khane mai kya dete hai?

User : - Sagardan 1 din mai 1 gay ko 20-25 kilo dete hai,maka berada har gay ko 4 kg per day, 40ml miniralas per gay ko per day aur agar koi gay 10 liter gay ho to use 1liter phosphurs dete hai.

Student: - Agar enhe bemari ho to dr. Ko bulate honge?

User: - Nahi,mai khud padha likha hu aur maine training ki hai to mai khud unako davai deke ilaj karata hu.

Student: - To aap konasi davaiya use karte ho?

User: - Ivomec , Involon ,Amul Jevan ,MelaXone,Anabolite, Sodium Cholride Injection(NS),Must Cool, Livo-G ,B Vil , BV OXY , Alviphos.

5th Field Visit Location: - Alua

Date: - 30th May 2017

User: - Desai Arjun

Conversation

St:- Namstey hum Mumbai se aye hai grambharati me summer school me. Hum janavar ke health ke bare me kam kar rahe hai. To hume aapke janavar ke bare me kuch jankari chaiye.

User: - ha. Pucho

St:- aap ke pas kitne gai hai

User: - kul 10 gai hai. Hf-1, desi-8, jersey-1

St: - achha to aap dinbhar me kya kya kartey ho.

User:- 5 baje uthke chara dete hai, dudh nikaltey hai, pani pilatey hai, jwari ka chara dete hai

St:- achha.

 

6th Field Visit Location: - Pratap-Pura

Date: - 30th May 2017

User: - Maltiben Chaudhari (Innovator)

Conversation

St:- namstey hum Mumbai se grambharati me aye hai summer school ke liye. Hum animals health pe kam kar rahe hai. hume thodi jankari chaiye.

User:- haa jarur

St:- aap ke pass kitne gai aur bhais hai?

User:- pandhar(15)

St:- roj ek gai ka kitna litre dudh nikalta hai?

User:- pandhar litre (15 Ltr.)

St:- gai ko khane me kya dete ho?

User:- sagardan, lila ghas, sukha ghas.

St:- ek gai ko ek din me kitna chara dete ho?

User:- ek divas me 20-25 kg liloghas aapese.(per day 20-25 kg green lila grass)

St:- aap unhe kuch extra calcium ya phir proteins deti hai?

User:- calcium tatva ki jyada jarurat hoti hai.

St:- aap ke gai bhais kabhi kisi karan mari hai?

User:- calcium ki kami se, lasikaran karane ke bad bhi rog ho jata hai is karan bahut taqlif hoti hai.

St:- dr ko kitne mahine me dikhate ho?

User:- pandhar divas ma ek bar achanak bimar thay to bulaviye siye.(once in 15 days or in any emergency)

St:- kabhi aise hua kid dr ken a rahne ke karan gai ki maut ho gayi ho?

User:- kharva muhavane lasi apaviti tyare thoda samay pashi gaine kharvamuhava thayo. Tyar pasha doctor ne bulaye dava ane injection aapiu te samay hug hare nahati. Thoda samay pashi gaine farithi lakva thay gayo. Pashi gai chali sakti nahati tyar bad thoda samay pashi dava karavi sakay gai sadi thayi nahi. Ane gai mari gayi. Tyar bad thoda samay pashi khabar padi ke tarikh jati rahi gayi davano upyog doctore karelo.

St:- to apne kisi ke pass complaint nahi ki kya?

User:- nahi ki

St:- aur konse konse rog hote hai?

User:- kharva muhvasa, kadiya tav, gadiya, high fever.

St:- aapko rog hone ke bad malum hota hai? Ya uske kuch adat me badal ane ke karan aapko malum ho jata hai?

User:- malum hota hai khana chod deti hai, akele baithati hai, dudh kam deti hai kabhi kabhi malum nahi padta to jyada bimar ho jati hai

St:- to aapko malum hone ke bad kitne der me doctor pahuch jata hai?

User:- sarkari doctor to call karne ke bad 4 ghante me ate hai aur private me bulaye to adhe ghante tak ajate hai.

St:- achha thik hai.

St:- to hum yahi jo pareshaniya hai unke uapar kam kar rahe hai. Jaise insano ke bare me hota hai agar kuch hojaye to pahle thoda pata chalta hai hum bata sakte hai ki hume kya ho raha hai lekin janavar bata nahi sakte unhe jo ho raha hai. To hum ye koshish kar rahe hai ki kuch aisa machine(device) banaye jise hume thodi der pahle malum ho jaye ki konsi gai bimar hone vali hai. To aap ko kya lagta hai is bare me ?

User:- ahut achha hai agar aisa ho jaye to bahut achha hoga bada punya milega. Hum to muh se bol saktey hai lekin vo to bol nahi saktey naa to ye bahut achha hai.

St:- thank you. Aap jarur ana grambharati me 12 tarikh ko.

User:- haa jarur aaungi.

7th Field Visit Location: - Grambharati Gaushala

Date: - 29th May 2017

User: - Dr.Pandya

St: - hum Mumbai se aye hai yaha grambharati me summer school me aye hai. the team are working on Animal Health Monitoring systems so hume thodi basic information chaiye.

Dr: - okay

St: - so konse basic disease hote hai yaha ?

Dr: - thyleria, mastitis, milk fever, gas problem, FMD (foot and mouth disease), high fever, etc. Symptoms of this are quite similar, cow khana chod deti hai, group se akele ho jate hai.

St: - aur konsi symptoms hume pehle malum ho saktey hai kya?

Dr: - body temperature me change hota and heartbeat change hoti hai

St: - to agar koi desease ho to uske pahle cow ke body ke temperature and heartbeat change hota hai kya?

Dr: - haa hum pahle detect kar saktey hai

St: - to unke body ka normally temperature kitna hona chaiye?

Dr: - 99 to 101 F in degree 36-40

St: - and heartbeat?

Dr: - 48 to 84 per minute

St: - okay... thank you doctor.

Dr: - welcome

8th Field Visit Location: - Grambharati Gaushala

Date: - 29th May 2017

User: - Prof Madan Sing

St:- the team are came from Mumbai for this year’s summer school. the team are working on Animal Health Monitoring. So the team want some basic information about Cows.

Sir:- yes sure. Ask questions.

St:- yes thank you sir. So sir basically cows ke kitne types hai?

Sir:- in India cow breeds are classified in three types For work purpose Milch ( for milk production) Dual (for work and milk production)

St:- the team have to work here in this place so the team focus in this surrounding area. so can you tell me what type of breeds are available here?

Sir:- yes sure. Here the team can see only three breeds. Gir ( most available in saurashtra) Kankrej( most available in kankrej dist.) Dangi ( most available in Dangi adivasi area) And some of cross breeds Kankrej X jersey Ankrej X HF Gir X jersey Gir X HF (this breed is more used for milk production) St:- what is the standard required food for cows?

Sir:- Green grass= 30-35 kg Dry grass= 4-5 kg Minerals = 50-60 gm Salt= 20-30 gm Water= 65-70 Ltr. Percentage of water in cow’s milk is 70% Available buffalo breeds Mehsani (fat=7-7.5) (available in Mehsana Dist.) Surati (fat= 7) (available in Kheda Dist.) Jafrabadi (fat= 8-8.5) (available in saurashtra ) Banni (fat= 7) (available in kutch)

St:- what exactly mean by fat ?

Sir:- fat can be define as percentage of ghee in milk. There are different methods to calculate the fat. Handmade mechanical machine( garbar fat test machine) Fat meter using new technology

St:- fat is constant for all time?

Sir:- morning fat is less than the evening fat.

St:- why?

Sir:- because at morning they don’t eat much than the full day so evening fat is more.

St:- okay... so can the team control the fat?

Sir:- 60% of fat is inheritance and 40% fat is totally depend on how the team take care of the cow like everyday food etc. And the cow who gives more milk its fat is less than who gives a less milk per day. because of water level.

St:- okay... what are the common disease are in cows?

Sir:- here the team find this diseases kharva muhvasa, milk fever, kadiya tav, FMD. And some disease because of viral and bacterial.

St:- so what care should taken by the owner?

Sir: - proper vaccination has to be done. Once in six months.

St: - okay... is there any change in temperature or heartbeat if cow has any disease?

Sir:- yes definitely, before any disease the body temperature and heartbeats are changed.

St:- what is the standard temperature and heartbeats of the healthy cow?

Sir:- temperature should be between 36.5 to 40 degree centigrade.

St:- so the team can use these two parameters to detect early detection of Animal health?

Sir:- yes!!!

St:- thank you so much sir.

Sir:- welcome come whenever you need my help.

St:- yes, thank you sir.

Prototype development The first prototype idea was to design a simple belt to be worn on the neck of cows, which will enable continuous monitoring of health. Each cow to be tied with a collar around the neck 24 X 7. However we dropped the idea since it is expensive to have one collar for each cow. Tying and untying for each cow is a cumbersome process.

Prototype 1

Prototype 2

Prototype development

 

The final prototype has a heart-beat monitoring device and a temperature monitoring device. We met a veterinary doctor who advised us on the range for cows for heart-beat and temperature. A buzzer is fitted in the gaushala, and when someone measures the heart-beat and temperature – a buzzer rigs when the heart-beat or temperature is outside the normal range. Mr. Ankur Bal from ST Microelectronics advised us on the sensors for the prototype.

Output Monitoring

Final Prototype

Description

Animal Pre-Health Monitoring is a user-friendly prototype which any user (literate or illiterate) can easily handle. The user can easily monitor the health of animal using this device. It monitors the heart beat and temperature of animal. If there is any change in the temperature or heartbeat of an animal from the normal range, the device will give an indication or the buzzer will buzz. Along with that, it will also display the temperature and heartbeat of the animal. It is made up of Plastic box in which LCD ,Battery, Controller, Heart Beat & Temperature sensor, etc are assembled. This device is useful for cattle owners. Since the number of cattle is generally large, it is quite difficult to monitor each animal’s health individually. This device can be used anytime in a day by milk production owners. Whenever the owner feels that any particular animal is not behaving normally, the owner can check the heartbeat and temperature of that animal to know if there is any change in that animal’s body. So user can call doctor at an early stage by early detection. This device is better than other products available in the market. The biggest and important task is to make device as low cost as possible, so that every user can afford this device.

Final Prototype Advantages:-

  • It is user-friendly.

  • Any user if educated or uneducated can easily handle it.

  • Low Cost

  • Heart Beat and temperature can easily be monitored

Procedure for using device

  • Touch the device to any part of the animal’s body.

  • The device will sense the temperature and heart beat and will display the readings on the screen of the device.

  • It will indicate if the temperature or heartbeat of the animal is very low or high (i.e. beyond their range).

  • After indicating if the temperature or heartbeat of the animal is very low or high, the buzzer will buzz to further warn the user about the abnormality.

Programming

Prototype Testing

Limitations

  • Does not measure respiratory system

  • Power supply is low

  • Low range transmitter

  • Feedback from gaushala, made us realise that a red/green LED is a better alternative than a buzzer. Animals are scared of loud noise

 

Road ahead

  • Better power supply

  • Transmitter range to be improved

  • User interface needs to be developed further. Prof Anil Gupta suggested designing a glove, which when touched on a cow will provide readings

  • Respiratory and breeding parameters need to be captured

  • Finger-print/ biometric can be captured for individual monitoring

  • Develop and App connected to the hardware designed for animal health monitoring

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